Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistris of Kutch or Kadia Kshatriyas are a minority Hindu community of Kutch District of Gujarat State in India. They first established themselves at Dhaneti or Dhanetee and were later granted nineteen villages by the rulers of Kutch. They are famous designers of and developers of many historic monuments of Kutch, forts, temples and also dams, bridges and railways in India. Contents 1 History of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas 2 Religion and customs 3 Surnames 4 Skills and their contributions in history of Kutch 5 Migration out of Kutch 5.1 Contribution in history of Indian Railways in British India 5.2 Contribution in history of coal mining in India 5.3 A brief idea of their contribution in various cities and states of India 5.4 Religious and charitable contributions outside Kutch 6 Present status 7 Some information as pioneers of social reforms taken by KGK community 8 A brief history of Kutch relevent to Kgk community 9 References 9.1 Books History of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistri or Kadia Kshatriyas as they are known in Kutch are a group of Rajput or Kshatriya clans, who migrated from Rajasthan in early 7th century A.D. fighting and repealing attack from North-West. They first entered into Saurashtra in 7th century onwards and settled in various places in Saurashtra. Later in 12th century around 1177-78 A.D. (V.S. 1234) a major group of this warrior clan under leadership of Patel Ganga Maru entered Kutch from Saurashtra and established and settled themselves in a village named Dhaneti after a battle over there, which they named Dhaneti, for the war that was fought on this land. The Parias or Paliyas of Dadas or Shurapura or Surdhan and Deris of Satis of their ancestors are still there in Dhaneti standing there as mute witness to their history more than 1000 years old. Even today the family members, descendants of these warriors go there to pay their homage and respect, at least once a year. According to chronicles of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas, the name Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas was adopted by their ancestors to bond their identity that they are Kshatriyas, who migrated to Gurjar region (Rajasthsn & Gujrat as of now were known as Gurjar Pradesh in those times) and finally made Kutch their home. These Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistris in course of time left Dhaneti and went on to establish other nineteen villages in Kutch, which were granted to them by the King. Later in 14th century onwards they moved between Bhuj and Anjar and up to Galpadar and founded the nineteen villages of Anjar, Sinugra, Khambhra, Nagalpar, Khedoi, Madhapar, Hajapar, Kukma, Galpadar, Reha, Vidi, Ratnal, Jambudi, Devaliya, Lovaria, Nagor,Meghpar, Chandiya and Kumbharia. Madhapar was named after Madha Kanji Solanki who had shifted from the Dhaneti village to Madhapar in the year (V.S. 1529) 1473-1474 AD . Madha Kanji was third generation of Hemraj Hardas Solanki descandant of Solanki dynasty of Gujarat. It should be noted here that Madhapar was established much before Bhuj was founded in 1510 and became Capital of Kutch in 1549. At that time 11 (eleven) villages named Anjar, Meghpar, Galpadar, Vidi, Nagalpar, Sinugra, Khambhara, Chandia, Lovaria, Kumbharia, and Devalia were the main centres where they settled. All 11 (eleven) villages are nearby and around Anjar. The area is plain and in general called Ugamna Pat (literally meaning villages to the east). The other villages were called located in Dungaral Pat (meaning area of small mountains) in which there are 7 (seven) villages named Nagher or Nagor, Kukma, Reha, Hajapar, Jambudi and Ratnal and Madhapar where ancestors of different clans of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas settled. As per their chronicles Bhuvad Village was also established by one Piyu Chawda of their Community. And Meghpar on Anjar-Galpadar Road was also founded and initially inhabited by Mistri community. Khedoi was established later on. Besides Dhaneti, the Parias or Paliyas of Dadas or Shurdhan and Deris of Satis of these Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistris are also found in large numbers in outskirts of Anjar, especially within the compound wall of Samadhi of Jesal-Toral in Anjar city. The "Paliyas" of these community can also be found scattered along the track and periphery of nineteen villages founded by them. The Parias of Dadas and Sati of Jethwa, Rathor, Khodiyar, Chudasama & Savaria clans of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas are in this Temple campus. Parias of the community can also be found at Dabda within temple premises of Kapadi Saint Jai Raja Kapadi Dada also known as Dabda Dada. Paria of Mistri Mavji Dada, Karsan Dada of Gohil and Kalyanji Dada of Jethwa are located here. Also Deri of Sati Lalu Ma of Nagalpar is within this temple. Parias of Satis & Dadas of Solanki, Parmar & Chawda clans of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas can be also found in village Devaria, Kachchh. The Paria of Poria Jethwa, who arrived from royal lineage of Jethwa dynasty of Porbandar are in Dhaneti. Dada of Chauhan of Khambhra is found within Samadhi and Temple Premises of Chauhan Ajepal Dada of Anjar. Religion and customs Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistris of Kutch is a Hindu community and staunch believers in Hindu or Vedic rites and customs. The community is Vegetarian in diet. Members of this community also religiously worship their Kuldevi and pay respects to the 'Paliyas' of their 'Dadas' and 'Deris' of their 'Satis'. The individual families follow different Hindu Gods like Lord Rama, Lord Krishna, Lord Shiva, God Hanuman and Goddess Durga, as per their own belief and choice. In all the nineteen villages named above, therefore, you can find the temples of these Hindu Gods, built by them, centuries ago. Among which, the Thakor Mandir of Sinugra is very famous for its intricate craftsmanship and vividness. Thakor Mandir of Chandiya, Madhapar also have beautiful carvings and idols of gods & goddesses. Many of them are also followers of Ramdev Pir (1352-1385 AD), whose Samadhi is at Ramdevra or Ranuja near Pokhran in Jaiselmer District of Rajasthan, whom they consider their Eesht Dev. This further authenticates their earlier bonds with Rajputs of Rajasthan. One member of their community named Mistri Kanji was one of the five disciples of famous saint of Kutch - Kapadi Sant Mekan Dada. Mekan Dada is one of the famous saints of Kutch, born around 1720, who it is said established himself in his later life at Dhrang in year 1786. He and his disciples and animal friends Motiyo, the dog and Laliyo, the donkey are well known for the humanitarian services to the lost and hungry travellers lost in Rann of Kutch. He later took a live Samadhi along with his five disciples, one among which, as mentioned above was Mistri Kanji of this community. Many families of this community are followers of Pranami Sampraday - an off-shoot of Hindu religion, who worship Lord Krishna in his 'Bal-swaroop' (child form). This sect of Hinduism came to prominence in Gujrat in early 17th century around 1630s. With the advent of Swaminarayan Sampraday in Kutch during 1810-1820s many families of these Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas community adopted Swaminarayan Religion and they were instrumental in construction of Swaminarayan Mandir and Dharamsalas in some of the nineteen villages, like Anjar, Kumbharia, Madhapar, Sinugra, etc., where there were large numbers of followers of this sect. However, though the different families independently worshipped different Gods but their core identity remained same as Kshatriyas and Hindu and all of them always remained in unison and bound as per their historical identity of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas and inter-married only within these nineteen villages, irrespective of the fact, whichever, God & Goddess or sect, the other family followed in their individual capacity. During historic times every village had a Head. The head of village was often called "Gaam Na Patel". That is similar to Sarpanch of recent times. Head of all nineteen villages i.e. whole community was elected every few years. The Head of community was called "Patel" or "Naat na Patel". It was an honorary title and head-man used to use title "Patel" before their name. This "Patel" is not to be confused with Patel Surname commonly found in Gujarat. The community was called "Naat". The community gatherings were called "Moti-Naat". "Moti-Naat" had their leader called "Patel", Village head of each Nineteen Villages and Judicial Body of five people called "Panch", members of which were elected by Community ("Naat"). The decisions given by this "Moti-Naat" and "Panch" were considered final in case of any dispute regarding partition of property, marriage, divorce, etc and whole community used to abide by their decisions. Surnames These group of warrior consist of various Kshatriya clans like Jethwa, Chawda -Chawra, Rathor-Rathore -Rathod, Chauhan -Chouhan-Chowhan, Maru, Varu, Vaghela, Sawaria -Savaria, Chudasama, Solanki, Parmar, Khodiyar, Padhiyar, Yadav, Tank -Taunk, Gohil, Vadher, Wegad -Vegad, Makwana, etc. The names of their Kuldevis differ as per their clan - surname. "Patel" & "Seth" were honorary titles used by community persons and not their surnames. They have idols ('Farias') of their Kuldevi in the nineteen villages established by them, mentioned above. The names of their Kuldveis are Chamunda Maa, Brahmani Maa, Sikotar Maa, Khodiyar Maa, Peethal Maa, Chaval Maa, Boot Bhawani Maa, Bahuchar Maa etc. Skills and their contributions in history of Kutch These Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas were also master crafts-man and architects and contractors and have played major role in erection and construction of majority of Forts, Palaces and architecture of Kutch. It was because of their this quality they later came to be known as Mistri in Kutch. The word Mistri &/or Mistry means ‘skilled artisan’ in Gujarati, adopted in Gujarati language from Portuguese language mestre meaning ‘master’, ‘expert’. It must be noted here that Portuguese were present in Gujarat from around 1500 AD and Battle of Diu was fought in 1509, where in Portuguese later built Diu Fort. They also acknowledged their expertise in building fortress and said they are mestre. Even the Muslim rulers since historic times had accepted the expertise of Kadia or Kadia Kshatriyas & were always sought after community, especially for building forts & fortress. The community was also known to travel far and wide for building such forts, palaces, etc and later come back to their native villages, once the work was over. Their orignal roots, as said earlier, was in Rajasthan, and these group of Rajput or Kshatriyas were the people, who were patronized by Kings for their ability of design and built forts and members of their community usually held the post of Gaidher. As mentioned above, not only these Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistri community were expert and specialized in stone cutting and construction of forts, palaces, temples and buildings but they were also skilled architects and artisans, who could do articulate carvings of doors, windows, pillars, idols of gods and goddesses and ceilings. They have been main engineers of almost all historical monuments of Princely State of Kutch. Mistri community were major land holders and Jagirdars or Garasdars in Kutch from many centuries. They also used to do farming and maintained large land-holdings and Vadis and Khetars in and around the nineteen villages they settled like Sapeda, Chandrani, Sugaria, Mindiyani, Bhadroi, Meghpar, Dhaneti, Bhuvad, Jakhu, Zaru, Dabada, Ambapar, Mindhiara, Sukhpar, Varsamedi, Kotda to name a few. They were once a prosperous community and there was a proverb in Kutch "Mafa-vara Gada to Mistri-na-j hoy". As per records of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas community 'Gaidher' Jagmal Pitamber of Anjar was Gaidher of Kutch Raaj in middle of 17th century and the "Gadh" meaning Forts of Bhuj, Anjar, Mandvi and Mundra are erected and construction under supervision of 'Gaidher' Jagmal Pitamber with help of other Mistris of the nineteen villages mentioned supra. Third in line of succession of Jagmal Pitamber i.e. his son Ruda Gajdhar Jagmal and his son Jairam Ruda became Gaidher in time of Maharao Shree Pragmalji, in whose time during V.S. 1925 to 1935 ( 1868 AD to 1878 AD) Prag-Mahal was constructed in Bhuj. His Assistant Engineer was 'Giadher' Devshi Gova of Khedoi. Maharo Shree Pragmalji held special affection for Gaidher Jairam Ruda and Mistris of nineteen villages were hired on recommendation of Gaidher. Alfred High School, Museum, Library, Hamisar ni paal (embankment of Lake Hamirsar), Aara Ghat all were constructed during the reign of Maharao Shree Pragmalji, when Gaidher Jairam Ruda of Anjar was the Gaidher of the State. Mistri Kanji Gova of Khedoi was Gaidher in court of Gagubha, the Darbar of Kothara from 1855 to 1895 and the Jain Dersar Jain temple now famous as Absada-ni- Panchtirthi, Derasar of Naliya and other Palaces of Kothara were built under supervision of Mistri Kanji Gova of Khedoi with help of other Mistris of nineteen villages in the year 1858. The temple of Aashapura Mata at Mata-no-Madh, the Kuldevi of Jadeja Rulers of Kingdom of Kutch has been built by Mistri community. Similarly, the temple at Dhrang over the Samadhi of Mekan Dada was also erected by craftsman of the Mistri community. The renovation and reconstruction of Bhadreshwar Jain Temples was also done by Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas. Mistri Kanji Gova of Khedoi was also Gaidher of Darbar of Kaira during the years 1880 to 1895 and all the erection done by Kaira Darbar was done under his supervision. The Brother of Kanji Gova, Mistri Ruda Gova of Khedoi was also the Gaidher, who constructed in Nagalpar, the Aga Khan's Kubo of Khoja community. The construction started in the year 1860 and was completed in about five years. It should be noted here that word "Gaidher" derives its name from word "Gadh". "Gadh" or "Garh" means Fort in almost all North Indian language like Hindi, Gujrati, Marathi, Rajasthani. For example Chittorgadh, Sinhgadh, etc. The persons, who were expert in building such Forts were called "Gaidhar". It is actually an honorary title. The Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas have also built and donated funds for religious and chartitable purposes, building temples as well as hospitals and in field of child and girls education by building schools in Kutch as well through out various places in India. All early Mandir and other infrastructure like Chhabutaro, Dharamsalas in their nineteen villages are built by them. A few examples are given below. In most of the nineteen villages belonging to Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas, they have built and started Primary Schools during early 1900s. Khoda Ramji started Primary School in Sinugra in 1910. Bhimji Devji Rathod started Girls School in Madhapar. Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor built Boarding House for students in Bhuj in 1932. Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra and Dhanji Ratanji Rathod of Nagalpar built Boarding House and School in Anjar. A major donation for Anjar Boarding was also given Rai Sahib Narshi Bechar Khodiyar of Anjar and Kharagpur. Mistri community also helped to develop Ashrams of Dhrang and Vandhay in Kutch. Swaminarayan Mandir in Kumbharia was built by Jivan Narayan Chauhan in 1868. He and his son Govamal Jeevan also built the village pond Dharamsalas, etc in Kumbharia The famous Thakor Mandir of Sinugra were built by Khoda Ramji Chawda and Khoda Ratna Tank of Sinugra in 1895. Chabutro at Sinugra built by Khora Ramji & Brothers. Hanuman Temple and Vaadi of Hajapar are built by Nanji Govindji Tank. At village Khambhra, Temples, Library, Balwadi, Chabutro, Harijan Vaas and more particularly the Dam with the check dams which could store water for the whole village for years in those drought prone ages were single handedly designed, build and donated by Lira Raja Rathod son of Raja Ruda of Khambhra and Kolkata. Thakor Mandir at Nagalpar was built by Lira Valji Tank. At Nagor, the Harijan Vaas, Temple, Public Garden, pond and 10 km long pucca road from Bhuj to Nagor was built and donated by Jagmal Raja. In 1923 by request of Commissioner, Kadia Bhanji Dhanji Rathod of Devaliya had done repair and rehabilitation of Dwarakadheesh temple Temple with help of Ranchhod Ramji Chauhan of Nagalpar, as per details mentioned in Temple's records. Mistri Bhanji Dhanji and his sons Mulji Bhanji & Bhimji Bhanji were Railway Contractors of repute who have done major works in Bhusaval and Manmad section. Renovation work and expansion of Suralbhit - Jadeshwar Mahadev Temple near Bhuj was done by Mistris - Manji Jeram Rathod and Valji Bhimji Rathod of Madhapar Village in the year 1914 (V.S. 1971) financed by Maharao Sri of Kutch. In year 1943 (V.S. 2000) Manji Jairam Rathod of Madhapar again did the renovation of Suralbhit - Jadeshwar Temple. The Step-wells near Dhorava Hanuman Temple were built by Mistri Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar in 1927 from his personal finance. Mistri Valji Bhimji Rathod of Madhapar was among the few persons who, apart from Royal family, owned car by special permission of King of Kutch. Besides, being in construction works Mistris were also entrepreneurs and many of them owned fleet of ships and used to import & export dry fruits and spices and trade with Muscat, Mombasa, and other countries. Notable among them were Seth Raja Narayan Chawda of Kumbharia, Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra, Kachrani Varu of Anjar in the decades of 1880-1900. Mistris were major revenue earner for Princely State of Kutch. Besides, being major land holders, the majority of them worked as Railway Contractors in British India and were paid in Indian Rupees. Which, they bought to Kutch and got them converted in Kutchi currency of Koris. The conversion rate of British Indian Rupee to Kori was in multiplication. Further,British Indian Rupees were paper currency and Kori were Silver Coins. As such, on conversion the Koris had to be loaded in to many bullock-carts, and brought to the villages of Mistris. The bullock carts guarded by rifle and sword bearing guards were thus brought from Bhuj to their houses. Many Mistris also kept Miyana as their guards. They paid their tax on their income to Princely State of Kutch, instead of to British India and were therefore, adored and respected by Jadeja Kings of Kutch. Many families of Mistri community held friendly relationships with different Kings of Kutch. Migration out of Kutch The major migration of Mistris from Kutch began when the British started the laying of Railway Lines in India and these Mistris or Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas community which had been skilled in construction works decided to move out of Kutch and try their skill in Railway lines and allied Constructions for which the British needed skilled workforce. Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas have major contribution in History of Indian Railways, a pioneers in field of laying Railway lines through-out British India and Coal Mining in India. Many families of Mistris also migrated outside India to other British Colonies like East Africa, Fiji and Burma during middle of 19th century around 1850. They were encouraged by British to go there as there was dearth of skilled persons in those countries and British needed them to build infrastructure over there. The contribution of Mistri community in infrastructure development of many East African Countries, Burma, Maldives, Ceylon and as far as Fiji is immense. Even today, you can find their descendants living in Kenya, Tanzania, Zanzibar, etc. Although, at present, many have moved out of East Africa and settled in United Kingdom or have returned back to India, due to political uncertainty in East African countries. Contribution in history of Indian Railways in British India It was during these years starting from 1850 AD to 1930 AD the Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistris community migrated outside Kutch and have done construction of all major rail-bridges and laying down of railway tracks in almost all major rail routes of undivided British India doing the Railway "Thekedari" i.e. Railway Contractors and as Contractors ("Thekedar") in Irrigation Projects. Their families, in course of time, settled in various parts of India during these early years of Railway Construction 1850 to 1930 and have continued to prosper and progress in various other fields in various States of Union of India. The testimonials and details of which can be found from their community chronicles and books referred under. They have done the pioneering works in Scind Railways, Punjab Railways, East Indian Railway, Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway , Great Indian Peninsula Railway, North West Railways, Northeast Frontier Railways, Bengal Nagpur Railway, Bankura Damodar Railway, Assam-Bengal Railways, Maharashtra Southern Railway, Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, East Coast Railway, Morvi & Junagarh State Railways, Cutch State Railway, Nizam State Railway, Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railways, South Indian Railway, Tapti Valley Railway, Gaikwad Railway, Bhavnagar State Railway, Scindia State Railway, Central India Railway, Mysore State Railway, etc. to name a few. The first persons to enter into this field were in the decade of 1850 and many Mistris soon followed and by 1910 the Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas had established their monopolies as Railway Contractors various divisions of Indian Railways by gaining praise and affection of British authorities with their skill, simplicity, endurance, hard work and earnestness. Just to give an idea of works Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas have done in Railways laying in undivided British India, the following details are given from their community chronicles & books referred hereunder :- Aamong the first members of the community to jump into Railway thekedari in the years 1850-1860 were Jivan Narayan Chauhan of Kumbharia with Daya, Manji & Mepa Pachan of Sinugra laid the Railway lines in Scind Railways between Karachi - Kotri - Rawalpindi. His son Govamal Jivan Chuahan was born in Karachi in 1855, who also became a major Contractor and his life sketch along with Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra in mentioned in Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar & Orissa. Others to work in this section of Scind Railway in 1860 were Patel Ramji Ladhhani of Anjar and Narayan Raja of Madhapar. Looking at the expertise of Jeevan Narayan Chauhan, he was offered a job of Engineer in Railways by British although he never attended school. He joined Scind Railways in 1862. Harji Jeevan of Kumbharia in the year 1898 did works of Karachi Dockyards. In North Western Railways in the year 1881 to 1883 Govamal Jeevan Chuahan of Kumbharia and Mandan Jeevani of Madhapar completed Mari to Attock section. Govamal Jeevan's son Manji Govamal was born in Rawalpindi in 1881 at time of this work, who also became a major Railway contractor when he grew up. While in later decades of 1886 Khoda Ramji Chawda of Sinugra was working on 100 miles of contract between Surat and Amalner in Tapti Valley Railways, in 1887 Manji Daya of Anjar and Lakhu Devji Vegad of Anjar were building the Bridge over the creek from Rameshwaram to Pamban in South Indian Railways, around that time in 1886-87 Karsan Bhima Rathod of Madhapar was laying lines in East Coast Railways between Cuttack and Puri and bridge over Dhelang River, Jagmal Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia was building Railway lines in Bengal-Nagpur Railways between Rajnandgaon and Bilaspur during 1888-1890 and in 1888 Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra with Jetha Lira Jethwa of Sinugra was building railway track of Bilaspur to Jharsuguda and bridge over Champa river and Govind Karsan of Hajapar was doing contract of lines between Howrah and Kharagpur and building stations of Baluchak, Raur & Chandpur and at the same time Manji Jeram Rathor of Madhapar was building Midnapore Railway Station. While Bechar Hardas Khodiyar of Anjar in year 1890 was laying tracks between Bilaspur and Katni, his brother Jeram Hardas Khodiyar of Anjar in 1887 was working on doubling of Railway tracks in Great India Peninsular Railways between Itarsi and Khandwa, Govamal Jivan Chuahan of Kumbharia in 1884 was working in Bezwada Section of Nizam's State Railways near Warangal, in 1895 Govamal Jivan also did works in East Coast Railway in Bezwada to Rajahmundry section. Vishram Karman of Chandiya & Jeram Jagmal of Kumbharia in 1886 were building lines between Miraj and Sangli in Maratha State Railways, while Ladhha Jiva in Morbi State Railways 1883 built Bridge over Machhu River at Morvi and 1885 he built bridge over river at Padghari. While during same time Karsan Vishram Chauhan of Nagor was working on Railway tracks in Assam Bengal Railways between Siliguri to Saidpur and Paksey. In 1890 Narayan Mandan of Kumbharia built Railway Track in Bengal Nagpur Railways between Sini to Purulia.In 1886 Mavji Kanji Rathod of Madhapar did extensive work in Assam-Bengal Railways near Saidpur, Dacca, Siliguri. Varjang Mulji Tank of Khambhra built 22 miles Railway line between Bhildi and Raniwada in Haryana. Whereas in 1882 Ratanshi Manji Tank of Sinugra built railway track between Cuttack & Kharagpur. In 1919 he with his son Khoda Ratanshi Tank built the bridge over River Falgoo near Gaya and railway lines in East India Railways connecting Aripata, Darbhanga, Jaynagar, Samastipur. In Khurda Road to Waltair section in the year 1895 Mistris Govind Daya of Kukma built railway track after filling Sea near Chilka, Bridge over Ganjam River was erected by Khora Ramji of Sinugra and railway track by Nanji Dhanji of Galpadar and Manji Jeram of Madhapar, whereas Ratna Manji of Sinugra built bridge of Ganjam Canal with Premji Vala & Triku Vala of Kukma. Hubli Loco Yard & Workshp in MSM Railways in year 1880 was done by Khora Ramji Chawra of Sinugra. Whreas in East India Railways in year 1903 Railway bridge over River Ganga between Allahbad & Lucknow was built by Khoda Ramji Chawda of Sinugra. Agra City Station in 1903 was built by Mavji Manji of Hajapar and in same year Mulji Maghji of Nagor and Raja Narayan of Nagor built bridge over Jamuna River near Agra and railway lines between Sikohabad to Farukabad were built by Mavji Petha , Dana Khoda both of Hajapar & Jairam Govind of Kukma. In 1918 Anuppur to Barwadih section of Railway was built by Hardas Khimjee of Khambhra in partnership with Narayan Vala, Jeram Premji, Ratna Premji, Khimjee Manji & Vasta Manji all of Kukma. Ramji Gangji of Kumbharia in same year built bridge over Hasdeo River near Chirimiri in this section. In Gujarat in the early decades of 1860-80 the major works under BB&CI Railways in Ahmedabad - Baroda - Surat section was done by brothers Kunwarji Nanji Tank, Dahya Nanji Tank, Mavji Nanji Tank and Kunwarji Anada Vadher all of Sinugra who worked from Ahmedabad and built Railway track between Ahmedabad and Baroda including Railway Station and Yard of Kalupur, Maninagar. Whereas Kala Sava Tank and Jeeva Sava Tank of Sinugra stationed themselves at Baroda and built Baroda Station and Yard and track towards Surat. Later Mavji Nanji Tank shifted to Phulera and did extensive works of Railways in that section, while Kunwarji Anada Vadher shifted to Wadhwan for Railway jobs.In Gaikwad State Railway Hemraj Kanji Chawda of Sinugra in year 1912 did the Bilimora to Sara Section The Vyara section of Tapti Valley Railway was built by Khoda Ratna Tank of Sinugra in 1896 and Nandurbar section was built by Jeram Jagmal of Kumbharia. Kunwarji Ananda Wadher of Singura also built railway lines of Bolangir to Sambalpur and his brother Shivjee Anada Vadher of Sinugra and Ranchhod Virjee Vadher of Vidi railway station between Bhatapara to Raipur. Raipur Railway station was built by Ruda Valji Savaria of Kumbharia. Rajnandgaon Station was built by Raghu Panchha Tank of Sinugra, who was also honoured by Royal family of Rajnandgaon. Similarly, Devram Chawda of Lovaria was honoured and gifted a large piece of land by Nizam of Hyderabad for building railways in Aurangabad District. Valji Mavji Rathod of Madhapar was given Shirpav by Rulers of Bhopal for his works in Bhopal State. Shyamji Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia built Raigarh Railway Station and held close intimancy with Royal family of Raigarh . Govamal Jivan of Kumbharia built Angul Railway Station. Bankura Railway Satation was built by Jeevan Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia and Lalji Raja Waghela of Sinugra. Kharsia Railway Station was built by Vasta Gangji Savaria and Jeram Mandan of Kumbharia in 1890. In year 1908 Balaghat to Katangi section including bridge over Ven-Ganga was completed by Jagmal Gangji, Mulji Govind, Manji Jeram of Madhapar, Manji Heera of Kumbharia, Khimjee Valji, Vishram Ananda of Reha & Premji Jetha of Kukma. In same year 1908 Nagpur to Chhindwara section was completed by other Mistris Govind Daya, Gopal Pachhan of Kukma, Bhimjee Raghu, Virjee Ramji, Narayan Mulji of Hajapar, Jadavji Bhanji, Mandan Narayan, Kala Murji of Madhapar, Kunwarji Narayan, Ratna Mepa of Devaliya, Shivjee Raja of Jambudi, Khimjee Nanji of Khambhra, Ananda Narayan of Kumbharia & Bhimjee Pancha, Raja Ramji, Bhoja Ramji of Nagor. In year 1920 Amda to Jamda railway line built for transporation of iron ore the Contractors were Bhanjee Ladhharam of Reha stationed at Gua, Murji Govind of Madhapar at Jamda, Shamji Mepa of Sinugra & Manji Heera of Kumbharia stationed near Noamundi, Jeevan Gangji & Ramji Jetha both of Kumbharia stationed near Danguwapasi, Manji Jeram, Ratna Govind & Nanji Devshi all of Madhapar stationed near Shingbera, Varjang Harji, Khimjee Dossa both of Nagalpar & Kunwarji Vasta of Anjar all near Hatgamharia, Vishram Arjan & Bhanjee Ananda of Reha at Chaibasa, Daya Ramji of Balambha & Premji Khengar of Kukma together completed whole section. Of which Chaibasa station was built by Bhanji Anada of Reha, Danguwapasi station built by Premji Khengar of Kukma. In year 1922 the railway track from Chandil to Barkakana was built together by Khengar Petha of Chandiya, Nanji Mavji of Galpadar, Ranchhod Mavji & Khimjee Nanji both of Khambhra, Premji Ananda & Kunwarji Narayan both of Devaliya & Devshi Nathu of Anjar. In very next year 1923 Barkakana to Bermo line was built together by Mistris Ratna Mulji, Bhimjee Pancha, Vishram Raja, Raghu Govind, Raja Ramji, Bhoja Ramji all of Nagor, Nanji Jetha of Madhapar, Varjang Kanji of Anjar, Ramji Valji, Hardas Karsan both of Khedoi, Jetha Gopal of Kukma, Jeeva Natha of Vidi, Varjang Vishram of Kumbharia, Lalji Raja, Kalji Raja, Ranchhod Virjee, Premji Virjee, Dhanji Virjee all of Sinugra, Bhanjee Mulji of Hajapar & Valji Premji, Magha Devji both of Devaliya. In 1921 Rourkela to Biramitrapur via Panposh railway line for Tata Company's Limestone quarry was done by Kunwarjee Narayan of Devaliya. In 1923 Biramitrapur to Hathibari section was done by Varjang Mavji, Varjang Vishram both of Kumbharia, Jeram Nanji of Sinugra & Shivjee Jeram of Khedoi. In Nizam State Railways Govamal Jivan Chauhan built track between Vadi to Bezwada with fellow Mistri Ruda Arjan of Kumbharia & Lalji Madan of Madhapar including Railway Station of Bhavangiri, Timalgiri, Aler and Warangal. Nathu Lalji Solanki of Madhapar built 90 miles Railway track in Nizam State Railway and Trikamji Punja Rathod of Khambhra built 10 miles Railway track between Secundrabad to Kazipet in 1910. A few notable Mistri Contractors in Assam Bengal Railway were Hirji Vishram Parmar of Hajapar, who was stationed at Paksey and Nanji Mavji Chawda & Kumbha Mavji Chawda of Galpadar stationed at Kushtia,Karsan Vishram Chauhan of Nagor stationed at Saidpur & Mavji Kanji Rathod of Madhapar. All of them have together done works upto Shillong and Guwahati and between Sealdah to Dacca. Later in 1922 in East India Railway they did works in Ranchi to Daltonganj. Hirji Vishram Parmar later shifted to Uttarpara, even today there is Parmar Road named after his surname in Uttarpara. Whereas, Mavji Kanji's son Valji Mavji Rathod of Madhapar shifted to Bhopal and Karsan Vishram's son Jairam Karsan Chauhan of Nagor, shifted to Sambalpur where he got contract to built Hirakud Dam. In Cutch State Railway, the first laying of Railways between Anjar & Bhuj in year 1900-01 was done by Mistri Karsan Bhara, Bhanji Kheemji & Bhanji Harji all of Kukma. Also in 1900 Mistri Vishram Karman of Chandiya laid the Kutch State Railway between Tuna Port and Anjar. The Mandvi Port Docks and Bridge over Rukhmavati were also built by Mistri Vishram Karman of Chandiya in 1883 to name a few works. In Great India Peninsular Railway some works are mentioned here from the books referred under.In year 1880 Abu Road to Kavli section was completed by Anada Gova of Khedoi. In 1900 Govamal Jeevan Chauhan of Kumbharia built the lines between Katni to Bina. In years 1902 to 1906 Jagmal Daya of Kukma, Mulji Meghji of Nagor and Jeram Hardas Khodiyar of Anjar did the doubling of Railway tracks between Khandwa to Itarsi. In year 1908 Moti Mulji of Anjar, Lalji Veera of Khambhra, Bhimjee Dossa & Valji Premji both of Devaliya completed railway track of Betul to Badanpur Section, of which Railway bridge over Kanhan river was erected by Valji Premji of Devaliya. The Nagda to Mathura section was completed in years 1907-08 by Mistris Ratna Premji, Hirji Mavji, Jeram Premji, Khimjee Manji, Govind Pancha all of Kukma and bridge over Nani Benas River was erected by Ratna Mulji of Nagor & Mavji Petha of Hajapar. In the same year 1908 Beana to Agra section was completed by Ramji Dhanji of Kumbharia. The Idar to Brahmkhed section in 1912 was done by Jeram Premji of Kukma and Nanji Nondha of Khambhra. Some other works in Bombay, Baroda & Central India Railway apart from mention above are as follows. Govamal Jeevan of Kumbharia in partnership with Mavji Gova of Anjar did the railway tracks between Dahod to Godhra from 1892 to 1894. Khoda Ratna of Sinugra with Kala Sava, Jeeva Sava of Sinugra and Bhanu Raghu completed Sabarmati to Dholka section in 1900. In 1902 again Khoda Ratna Tank of Sinugra and Ramji Dhanji Chawda of Kumbharia together did fifty miles of railway tracks from Baroda to Godhra and in 1904 Ramji Dhanji of Kumbharia with Jeevan Devraj of Sinugra together did ninty miles work in Rewari to Phulera section. In the year 1910 doubling of railway tracks between Bhusaval to Nagpur was also done by Mistri Vishram Govind, Nanji Bhanji, Ruda Daya, Shivjee Ruda, Jagmal Daya all of Kukma, Mandan Narayan of Madhapar and Shamjee Kheta of Anjar, who also did extension of Nagpur Yard. In 1914 Bharuch to Jambusar section was done by Hardas Nanji, Jutha Nonda of Khambhra, Hemraj Kanji, Kala Sava of Sinugra. In 1921 Jaipur to Jhun-jhun Section was done by Premji Ramji of Nagalpar, Narayan Veera of Sinugra and Lalji Devji of Jambudi. From Nagpur to Rajnandgaon, there was Metre-gauge line called Nagpur Chhattisgarh Railway owned by Great India Peninsular Railways. Bengal-Nagpur Railway purchased it and converted it into Broad-gauge. And from 1888 onwards extented it from Rajnandgaon to Howrah. The pioneers in this section were Jagmal Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia, Ruda Valji Savaria of Kumbharia, Raghu Pancha Tank of Sinugra, Kanji Bhoja Chauhan of Nagalpar together who built track from Rajnandgaon to Bilaspur including the bridge over river near Kumhari, Khoda Ramji Chawda of Sinugra in 1888 built track from Bilaspur to Jhasuguda and bridge over Champa River, Premji Govind of Devaliya built bridge over Ib River, Karman Mavji of Reha built bridge over Bhurai River near Baradwar. In 1892 Premji Govind of Devaliya built track from Jharsuguda to Sini including Bridges over Khadkai River near Tatanagar and over Suvarnrekha River near Rakha Mines. In 1910 Tatanagar to Gurumasini section was completed by Kanji Daya, Ranchhod Virjee, Ruda Ladhha of Sinugra, Khengar Narayan, Premji Khengar, Nanji Lira of Kukma, Raja Nondha, Virjee Nonda, Ramji Jetha of Kumbharia, Nonda Devshi,Karsan Bhimjee of Madhapar, Khengar Bhimjee, Pancha Ratna, Hardas Khimjee, Ramji Khimjee of Khambhra & Kunwarji Vasta of Anjar. In year 1902 Gondia to Jabalpur line was built by Govind Daya of Kukma, Jagmal Bhimjee of Madhapar & Harji Gangdas of Kumbharia including the bridge over Narmada river near Sakra Ghat. In year 1920 Cuttack to Talcher section was done by Raghu Karsan of Madhapar, Jeram Gangji of Kukma & Ramji Hardas of Khambhra. Ajni Railway Station near Nagpur was built by Ramji Jethwa of Nagalpur. In Bankuda - Damodar Railways in 1913 Adra to Bankura doubling was done by Lalji Raja of Sinugra, Jeevan Gangji, Devji Meghji of Kumbharia and Dana Premji of Devaliya. Bankura to Damodar section in 1915 was done by Premji Jeram and Ladhu Mandan both of Khedoi. Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas have done the bridges over the Son River at Dehri-on-sone, over Yamuna near Mughalsarai, over Ganga and Yamuna at Allahbad, over Champa River near Bilaspur, Pamban Bridge at Rameshwaram, over Rupnaryani at Kolaghat, over Hooghly at Calcutta to name a few of major Railway works done in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, United Provinces, Central Provinces, Punjab, Sind, Rajasthan, Nizam's Territories, Bombay State & Madras Provinces, etc. The next generations of these Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas followed their fathers and many earned honorary titles from British for their engineering feats in building major bridges and lines of Railways through out India. Their contributions to building Railway Tracks in India continued thus starting from 1850 to 1950 for almost a century, as per the referred books. They were lovingly called "Kutchi Contractors" by Railway Authorities and people of other States of India. Even today many of their families are working as Railway Contractors in India. Contribution in history of coal mining in India Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistri community were also the pioneers to enter in to Coal Mining business in Dhanbad- Jharia -Bokaro Coalfields area starting from 1895 to 1925 and established many collieries breaking the monopoly of British and Europeans in that field. They established colliries at Khas Jharia, Jeenagora, Balihari, Fatehpur, Joyrampur, Tisra, Katrasgarh, Kujamo, Kusunda, Golukdih, Pandibri, Rajapur, Basra, Bermo, Bhaga, Bugatdih, Bhojudih, Bastacolla, Jambad, Kajoragram, Dhaunsar in earstwhile States of Bihar & Bengal and Donganalla, Hingir-Rampur, Ghorghori, Ghoradongri , Tavaveli etc in Orissa and Central Provinces to name a few. To give a few examples, in Jharia-Dhanbad belt Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra founded Khas Jharia, Golden Jharia, Fatehpur, Balihari,Khas Jeenagora, East Bagatdih Colliries. with their brothers, Jairam Teja Ramji, Jetha Lira Jethwa, Mulji Akhoy, Narayan Pachan Chowra between years 1895-1910. In Pure Jharia Colliery Khora Ramji and brothers were partners with Diwan Bahadur D.D. Thacker. Govamal Jivan Chauhan of Kumbharia founded Pandubra and Golukdih Collieries during 1908-10. The life-sketch of Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra and Govamal Jivan Chauhan of Kumbharia is mentioned specially by British in Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar & Orissa mentioning their feats of Railway works and Coal Mining. The other notable from this community were Ramji Gangji Sawaria of Kumbharia founded Basra Colliery, brothers Khimjee Dossa & Gangjee Dossa Jethwa of Nagalpar founded collieries at Tisra and Katras, Joyram Gohil of Sinugra founded Joyrampur & Khas Bagatdih Collieries, Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja of Nagor & Manji Jeram of Madhapar founded Rajapur Colliery. Dana Premji Maru of Devaliya, Karamsinh Ghela Chawda of Devaliya, Khimji Valji Chauhan of Reha, Dhanji Ratanji Rathod of Nagalpar, Khengarji Triku, Dhanji Devshi of Madhapar, Ratna Mepa of Devaliya, Jairam Shivjee of Khedoi, Valji Narayan Chauhan of Reha, Veera Mavji, Dahya Valji of K.S.Nanji , Ruda Manji all started collieries at Tisra, Katras, Jharia coalfields. Ramji Dhanji Chawda of Kumbharia founded Hingir-Rampur Colliery near Brajrajnagar, brothers Rai Sahib Mulji Jagmal Savaria & Ranchhod Jagmal Sawaria of Kumbharia founded Donganalla Colliery near Pali in Katghora Tehsil of Chhattisgarh, while Rai Sahib Vishram Walji Rathod of Madhapar founded Ghoraghori, Ghoradongri & Tavaveli colliaries near Chhindwara, Ghela Pachan Parmar of Kukma founded Jambad & Kajoragram Coal Mines near Asansol in Bengal, to name a few. Arjan Ladhha Rathod & Varjang Harji Rathod of Kumbharia founded the Manganese Ore mines in Chaibasa in 1910. Rai Sahib Mulji Jagmal Savaria of Kumbharia and Rai Bahadur Jairam Valji Chauhan of Kumbharia also owned Manganese, Dolomite and Limestone Mines in at Jairamnagar, Akaltara, Tirodi, Katni in Central Provinces. Jeevram Jairam Chawda of Sinugra owned Minerals mines in Saraikela. Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor owned Silica mines in Shankargarh. The Rathod Market built by K.P. Rathod and Chawda Market by Karamsinh Ghela Chawra & Viram Ghela Chawra of Devaliya in Dhanbad are built by this community during those years. They laid the foundation of coalliries in Dhanbad-Jharia-Bokaro fields on which the later other communities like Punjabis (Khanna, Thapar), other Kutchi Communities (Nandwans, Chanchani, Worah, Ojhas), Marwaris (Agarwals, Poddars), Gujrati (Patel, Thacker) also followed and prospered in decades after 1930. Out of 92 collieries belonging to Gujaratis in Jharia Coalfields Area during 1930s - 50 belonged to Mistris of Kutch. In the lifesketch of Khora Ramji given in Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar & Orissa - the British have noted that - "In Jharia Coalfield he was first Indian to seize the opportunity and by his propmpt entry into colliery business, he was able to remove the stigma that would otherwise be levelled against his community as backward class." Seth Khora Ramji of Sinugra was also honoured by King of Kutch by giving him a Paghdi. Khora Ramji died in year 1923, just after his death in 1925, two of his colliries Khas Jharia & Golden Jharia capsized due to now infamous underground fires. Although, after nationalisation of the coal mines in 1971-73 all of them lost their mines and assets and a downturn in fortune of this community came. But history is witness to the fact that the credit of being the first Indians goes to Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistris of Kutch, who broke monpoly of British and European companies in coal mining field, a fact noted by British themselves in Life-sketch of Khora Ramji Chawda in Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar & Orissa. You can still find the many buildings and markets constructed by them in Dhanbad and Jharia and Raipur in Chhatisgarh, during their heyday, as a witness to their history. The Chawda Market, Rathod Market, Gohil Cold Storage in Dhanbad, Gujrati School at Jharia and Ramdev Market, Ramji Building, Raja Bhawan in Raipur built during 1920-30 are a few examples. A brief idea of their contribution in various cities and states of India Mistris or Kadia ' of Kutch were also involved in construction of many historical buildings of Mumbai. The Port of Bombay were built during years 1750 to 1760 and the people who worked in construction of this Port were Kamthi of South India, Sikar of Rajasthan and Mistris or Kadia of Kutch & Saurashtra. Besides the first Railway lines of BB&CI in an around Bombay, Kalyan and Thane. Mistris were also involved in construction of Victoria Terminus, High Court, Taj Hotel to name a few. Ranchhod Pachan Rathod of Khambhra settled in Kalyan had erected Saind-Hudsort and Mazgaon Railway cross bridge and also yards and station of Khandala. "Kutch Castle" of Bombay belonging to Royal family of Kutch was erected by Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor during time of Maharao Shri Khengarji Bawa, who shared a personal friendship with Jagmal Raja. In Calcutta, Mistris have built the Bally Bridge of Calcutta, King George Dock of Khiddirpore, and were involved in construction of Howrah Bridge. They were also involved in construction many majestic buildings of Calcutta, then the Capital of British India. The erection of Bally Bridge and King George Dock extension at Khhidirpore was done by Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor. Lira Raja of Khambhra after having done major railway works from Raipur to Vizianagaram and Khurda Road to Puri section established himself in Calcutta and built majestic buildings named Raja Bhawan, Raja Terrace, Raja Court, Raja Chambers and Godawari Bhawan all of which are now major landmark of the city. The Tatanagar Railway Station was erected by Nanji Govindji Tank of Hajapar. In Orissa, the famous "Shail Sadan Palace" of Bolangir Raj was constructed in 1886 by Karsan Bhima Rathor of Madhapar, while he was stationed at Cuttack doing Railway Contracts.Brothers Jagmal Bhima & Karsan Bhima Rathod of Madhapar have done extensive works for example in 1892 in Kharagpur - Khurda Road section, in 1897 Khurda Road to Puri section, in 1902 - Gondia to Jabalpur section, in 1906 Gondia to Nagbhid to Nagpur section, in 1910 in Tatanagar to Gurmasini Section. Their sons Raghu Karsan & Kunwarji Karsan Rathod followed their father in Railway works of which Kunwarji Karsan Rathod was later given title of 'Rai Saheb' by British for major Railway works in Orissa. In Nasik, Jairam Daya Chauhan of Kumbharia after having done major Railway Contracts entered into other business and later constructed Muktidham, which is now a famous attraction of the town. The community was also one the first to venture into Entertainment business and many of the built and owned Cinema Hall or Talkies as they were called then. They have built Cinema Halls in Raipur, Raigarh, Bilaspur, Manmad, Bankura, Kharasia, Kotma, Cuttack, Nasik, Gondia, Vapi, Jamshedpur, Ranchi, Asansol, Dhanbad, Itarsi, Bhopal, Balaghat during nascant years of the Entertainment Industry in decades of 1920-50. They also ventued into Hotel and hospitality industry. While, Manji Daya with Lakhu Devji both of Anjar and Gangji Narayan of Khedoi together built the Railway lines and Pamban Bridge over creek of Rameshwaram to Pamban construction of which they started in year 1887 and completed in around 1910. While working on Pamban Bridge the Mistris Lakhu Devji Vegad of Anjar and Gangji Narayan of Khedoi also built famous Temple of Neel-Mandir having seven domes at Rameshwaram, construction which, they started in 1899 and completed in about five years by 1905. Raja Narayan of Nagor with Mulji Meghji in 1903 together built bridge over Yamuna at Agra. His son Jagmal Raja Chauhan carried on father's legacy and some of his works are in 1904 railway track from Buland-Shaher to Hapur, 1904 Shahdara to Saharanpur, 1906 Aligarh Station, in 1906 Balmau to Sitarampur, 1908 Allahbad Ganga Railway Bridge construction, 1911 Allahbad Yamnua Bridge doubling, 1912 Kanpur to Banda bridge near Hamirpur over Yamuna, 1913 Hooghly- Katwa section, 1913 Jabalpur Gun Carraige siding, 1914 Mughalsarai Yard extension, 1915 Gaya - Katras doubling, 1916 Gaya yard extension, 1922 Dhanbad Yard extension, 1924 Calcutta Khiddirpore Docks extension, 1925 Dehri-on-sone bridge, 1927 Bridge over river Son near Arrah, 1927 Allahbad Yamuna bridge re-griding and finally 1932, when Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja of Nagor had just completed construction of Bally Bridge in Calcutta. He was recommended by Viceroy of India to King of Nepal, who needed Contractor of repute to do renovation and rehabilation of his Palaces. He was given the Contract for the same and Parbat Harji Chauhan, Karaman Devji Chauhan both of Kukma and Manji Shivjee of Madhapar were delegated by Jagmal Raja to supervise and complete the work. In 1923 Jagmal Raja was given title of Rai Bahadur at a convocation held in Simla, the summer Capital of British India. Jagmal Raja was one of the first persons given permission by King of Princely State of Kutch to own car. H.H. Maharao Sri Khengarji Bawa of Kutch held close intimacy with Jagmal Raja of Nagor. He was A.D.C. to H.H. Maharao Shri Khengarji Bawa of Kutch in the Coronation of King George VI in 1937 in London. Perheps the only person from any community of Kutch to have the honour of being ADC to King of Kutch. Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor, though studied up to 5th Standard, had the distinction of being conferred with Degree of AEIE (UK) on recommandation of Lord Irwin after completion of Bally Bridge in London. His life-sketch is noted in Encyclopędia Britannica and also noted in Book of World Knowledge. H.H. Khengarji III Bawa of Kutch also honoured Jagmal Raja by his presence at the convocation confeering this Degree in London to him. Jagmal Raja was also an Industrialist and had started Glass factories at Naini near Allahbad and also at Bombay, Straw factory at Dahanu, Pickle factory at Calcutta, Sanitary & Potteries factory at Derol in Gujrat. He also started aeromatics unit, Tiles factory, Ice factory, Fire clay factory, Insurance Company and Export Business. He also owned a Private Airlines Company named Ambica Airlines and a Steam Navigation company named Ambica Steam Navigation Co. Besides Coal mining he also owned a Silica Mines. British authorities named the station on its inauguration in 1929 Jairamnagar (a Railway Station at a distance of about 14 km from Bilaspur) in honour of the famous Railway Contractor of the community, Rai Bahadur Jairam Valji Chouhan of Kumbharia, who established himself at Raigarh for Railway Contracts. Jairamnagar is perheps the only case apart from Tatanagar, where the British have named a Railway Station after an Indian. Jairam Valji was given title of Rai Bahadur for his majestic works in field of laying and building Railways tracks and bridges. Similarly Hirji Karamsi Chauhan of Devaliya in years 1887 onwards built the railway track between Ranchi and Purulia. His son Lalji Hirji Chauhan was later given title of Rai Sahib for magnificent works of Railways done in Bihar and Bengal. Even today there is a road by his name - Lalji Hirji Road in Ranchi. Jagmal Gangji Sawaria of Kumbharia in the years 1888 built the railway track between Rajnandgaon and Bilaspur and Railway Station and Yards of Bilaspur in 1890. He was a Railway Contractor of repute and had stationed his office at Bilaspur. Jagmal Block and Jagmal Chowk in Bilaspur town of Chhatisgarh are named after him. His son Mulji Jagmal Sawaria was later given the title of Rai Sahib by British for majestic Railway works done in earstwhile Central Provinces and Orissa. Jagmal Gangji were seven brothers of whom Shyamji Gangji worked from Raigarh, Vasta Gangji from Kharasia, Ramji Gangji at Jharia, Jeevan Gangji at Bankura, Ruda Valji at Raipur and last one at Hyderabad. Bechar Hardas Khodiyar of Anjar established himself at Kharagpur with his brothers Jeram Hardas, Ranchhod Hardas, Hirji Hardas,Shamjee Hardas and had done in 1887 Khandwa - Itarsi, in 1890 Bilaspur - Katni, in 1906 Kamthi to Ramtek, in 1906 Nagbhid to Chanda,in 1907 Nagda to Mathura. His son Narshi Bechar Khodiyar was later given title of Rai Sahib by British, who did doubling of Sini to Purulia in 1921, Nagpur - Itarsi in 1922, Raipur to Vijaywada in 1926, Gokulpur to Hijli in 1946, Bankura to Midnapore in 1946, Kharagpur to Kalikunda in 1946 to name af few works. Bechar Hardas Khodiyar was founding Partner with his friend, Tiwary of M/s. Tiwary Bechar & Co. Limited where in his first name Bechar is incorporated. Dhanji Devji Rathod and Bhimjee Devji Rathod of Madhapar in 1903 built railways between Bhajudi to Mohda and in 1905 in M.S.M Railways between Kannaur to Manglore. His son Valji Bhimjee Rathod continued and built Bridges with his son Vishram Valji Rathod. Some works are bridge near Virar over Vaitarna River, over Purna River near Navsari, over Tapti River near Surat, over Sabarmati near Ahmedabad, Railway Station and Yard of Valsad, Dahod, Godhra, etc. Of whom Vishram Valji Rathod was given title of Rai Sahib by British, who also discovered and established Coal mines in Chhindwara district and finally established himself at Vapi. Many members of this community were given the honorary title of 'Rai Bahadur' and 'Rai Sahib' for their majestic and magnificent work done in construction and laying down of Railway lines and pioneering efforts in fields of Coal Mining in British India. Feats of many of them have been also noted in the Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar & Orissa. Names of some are given here-under. Other books mentioned below also mentions their feat. For example, Gopal Nanji Tank of Kukma, who established himself at Amravati was given title of Rai Sahib for his feats in Railway Lines and Bridge construction in Nagpur-Badnera-Bhusaval Section. Similarly, Devraj Daya Chauhan of Sinugra who worked from Jharsuguda was also given title of Rai Sahib for his achievments in Railways construction in Orissa. Also Ruda Ladhha Chawra of Madhapar did extensive Railway and Bridge erection works in Khandwa to Itarsi to Bhopal to Delhi section, who established himself at Hoshangabad and Bagra-Tawa, was also awarded title of Rai Sahib by British. Religious and charitable contributions outside Kutch Outside Kutch also they have built many temples, Dharamsalsas, schools for example - The Kutchi Ashram in Haridwar was built mainly from donations of this community under guidance and leadership of Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar in 1954. The land for Kutchi Dharamsala in Dwarka was donated by Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra. The Kutchi Kadia Dharamsala in Mathura was built by Khoda Ramji Chawda and Jetha Lira Jethwa of Sinugra. The Gujrati Dharamsala in Amarkantak was also built by Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas. Bechar Hardas Khodiyar of Anjar started Gujrati School and constructed Ram Temple at Kharagpur in West Bengal. The community also donated a large sums to built Arya-Kanya Gurukul at Porbandar, Vikas Vidhaylaya of Wadhwan, started Gujrati Primary School in Jharia and Raipur and built "Jharia House" Hostel at Rajgaht Besant Collage, Varanasi. They have also donated large sums to Gurukul Kangri Vidhyalaya of Haridwar & Navajivan Trust of Ahmedabad during their founding years. The famous Ramdev Pir Temple in Raipur at Fafadih Chowk was built and financed by Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas. Further, in 1900s Mistri Jagmal Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia built a Ram Temple in Bilaspur in 1890 and his brothers Shyamji Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia a temple in Raigarh in 1895 and Jeevan Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia built a temple & pond in Chhatna in 1903 when they were working as Railway Contractors. The famous Chabutro near Raigarh railway station (almost a replica of one found in villages of Mistri) - a landmark of city, was also erected by Shayamji Gangji Sawaria of Kumbharia. Rai Saheb Gopal Nanji Tank of Kukma built a Hospital in Amravati. Rai Sahib Mulji Jagmal & Ranchhod Jagmal Savaria built a Hospital in Ratanpur. M.H.Wegad Science Collage in Umred was built by Harlilal Devanda Vegad of Kumbharia & Balaghat. Jairam Daya Chauhan of Kumbharia, who built Muktidham Temple at Nashik Road also donated a large sums to start Collage in Nasik named J.D.Bytco. At Rameshwaram famous Neel-Mamdir was built between years 1899-1904 by Lakhu Devji of Anjar and Gangji Narayan of Khedoi. Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor built the huge Dharamsala near Jhusi Ashram housing more than 100 rooms on banks of Ganga River at Allahbad during 1910, a temple in Rajkot and boarding house for students in Pune. The Gujrati School in Valsad was started by Rai Sahib Vishram Valji Rathor of Madhapar. Nanji Govindji Tank of Hajapar built the exsisting Hindu Cemetorium and also a Ram Temple both at Jamshedpur. Present status Post independence, a downturn in fortune of community came. The community suffered a double blow by way of two legislations. In years of 1947 to 1958 there were major land reforms acts passed by Parliament. Zamindari Abolition Act in 1947, Bihar Zamindari Abolition Act(1948), Bihar Land Reforms Act, 1950, The Saurashtra Land Refors Act, 1951 and The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Vidarbha Region and Kutch Area) Act, 1958 and came into effect, due to which their lagre land holdings in Kutch and also in Gujrat were lost as the law provided that "land belongs to whom, who tills it" ("Khede teni jamin"). Most of the male members of Mistri community were enterprenuers and involved in Railway & PWD Contracts as well Coal Mining all over India. As such the agriculture lands of Mistri community in Kutch were tilled by Ahirs, Rabari , Sorathias and Miyana communities. By stroke of these laws the lands were transferred by Government to the persons who tilled. While in other States of Bombay, Bihar & Saurashtra where they also had purchased agriculture lands were also lost due to other Acts mentioned supra. Then in years 1971-73, coal mines all over India were nationalised by an Emergency Act passed by Parliament. The Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1971 followed by the Coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 & Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973 came into effect and the Coal mines assets of the community majority of which were in Bihar & West Bengal in Jharia-Bokaro-Asansol coal-belt and in other States of Madhya Pradesh, Orissa were all taken over by Government. At present this community members are found scattered though-out India, the descendats of first Railways Contrators and Coal Mining Enterpruers, whose families you can find maily along major rail-routes and Railway Junctions in India. As said earlier, the migration of these families outside Kutch has taken place during the decades of 1850-1930 mainly for the railway contracts and coal Mining business they had pioneered. Their settlements along major rail-heads are a proof to their history. At present, in Gujrat in Kutch District -- Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas are mainly residing Anjar, Nagalpar, Sinugra, Galpadar, Chandiya, Adipur, Gandhidham, Mandvi, Mundra, Varmanagar, Kandla, Khedoi, Reha, Hajapar, Madhapar, Kukma, Devaliya, Kumbharia, Lovaria, Khambhra, Nagor & Bhuj. It may be wothwhile to mention that today out of nineteen villages founded by them, there are almost no families of these community in Ratnal, Meghpar, Jambudi & Vidi. While in Saurashtra region of Gujrat they are in Vadodara, Ahmedabad, Surendranagar, Rajkot, Okha, Surat, Jamnagar, Dwarka, Mithapur, Vapi, Valsad, Umred, Navsari, Vasad, Daman, Dharampur, Piploi, etc. In Maharashtra, families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Mumbai, Kalyan, Thane, Dahanu, Pune, Nashik, Nashik Road, Ratnagiri, Manmad, Bhusaval, Nandurbar, Igatpuri, Amravati, Akola, Nagpur, Gondia, Wardha, Umrer, Tirodi, Tumsar, Yawatmal, Chandrapur, Ballar-shah, Barsi, Latur, Osmanabad, Parli-Baijnath, Purnea, Parbhani, Umred, Pandharpur, Nanded, Hingoli, Jalna, Aurnagabad, Shrirampur, Belapur, Nandurbar, Beed. In Chhattisgarh, families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Dongargarh, Rajnandgaon, Durg, Bhilai, Kumhari, Raipur, Dhamtari, Abhanpur, Bilaspur, Jairamnagar, Korba, Pali, Pendra Raod, Kawardha, Chirimiri, Bagbahra, Bhatapara, Mahasamund, Jagdalpur, Raigarh, Kharasia. In Madhya Pradesh, families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Bhopal, Bagra-Tawa, Hoshangabad, Itarsi, Jabalpur, Shahdol, Katni, Narsinghpur, Balaghat, Keymoor, Umaria, Kotma, Manendragarh, Chhindwara, Indore & Ujjain. In Uttar Pradesh, families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Varanasi, Agra, Jaunpur, Mughalsarai, Kanpur, Robertsgunj, Allahbad. In Delhi-Rajasthan route the Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Abu Road, Phulera, Udaipur, Ajmer, Jaipur, Kota and Delhi. In Orissa, families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in cities of Jharsuguda, Rourkela, Sambalpur, Kanrabagi, Jeypore, Baripada, Khariar Road, Raigada, Jaiyor, Cuttak, Kenjorgadh, Bhubneshvar, Beharampur, Balasor, Angul, Kantabhaji In Bihar & Jharkhand families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts and Coal Mining have settled in Chakardahrpur, Chaibasa, Tatanagar, Ghatshila, Dhanbad, Katras, Jharia, Bhaga, Ranchi and Patna, Bankudi, Purnea, Gaya. In West Bengal, families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts and Coal Mining have settled in Kharagpur, Asansol, Burdwan, Raniguj, Bankura, Adra, Purulia, Kolaghat, Uttarpara and Calcutta. The families living in the northeast cities of Tinsukia, Guwahati have now mostly left them due to turmoils in decade of 1980-90. In Andhra Pradesh, families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Nizamabad, Sirpur - Kagaz Nagar, Karim Nagar, Mancharial, Kazipeth, Hyderabad, Secundrabad, Vishakhapatnam. In Karnataka families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Vijaywada, Gulbarga, Kurnool, Solapur, Belur Hasan, Bangalore. In Tamilnadu families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Coimbtore, Tiruchinapalli, Madurai, Madras. Today, they have formed their associations in different States of India and organize seminars and meetings at State as well National levels and organize community meetings two to three times in year where Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas families from all over India come to re-strengthen their bonds and heritage and also organize meetings to find suitable brides and grooms for their siblings and also to resolve their family disputes through guidance of their elders. Every three years they also elect their leader(President) by voting. Like in historic times even today they have their internal judiciary body called Panch, who try to settle family disputes by mutual and amicable ways. The members of this "Panch" are appointed by the community's working board. President of the community in consultations with heads of different state level organisation then selects his working committee for three years. These Community gatherings of theirs takes place in different places of India and once a year they also assemble in Kutch - their Native State. They also have a woman's wing called "Mahila Mandal" at State and national level. Every three years a woman president is also elected by ladies of the community. The woman's wing works independently and also in co-operation with President of the community. The national level women's body of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas is called "Akhil Bharatiya Mahila Mandal". The woman president of this wing then democratically appoints her working committee members. The Mahila Mandal was founded in 1976 and first Mahila Mandal Pramukh or President of Women's Wing of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas, was Smt. Bhanuben Jayram Chauhan of Bombay & Nagor. Later, in 1996, she went on to become, also, the first woman to be Mahasabha Pramukh or President of the community. She was daughter-in-law of Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor. Similarly, they also have a youth wing at state and national organisational levels called "Yuvak Mandal". The young generation help in organising major national and state level events and the youths also organise a sports event every three years called "Kutchyadd" taking their cue from Asiad sports. The event also coincides with Dance, Music & match-making event. They also organise a match-making event called "Sagpan-sammelan" and other musical and dance programmes every year at different locations in India. Every year, at different State level a mass-marriage event is also held called "Samuh-Lagna", where-in the marriages of financially weak families or couples are held with blessings and financial co-operation of whole community at a very nominal expense. The first such event by the community was held in year 1972 at Raipur. It is customary for them to mention the name of Villages of Kutch from which they hailed in their Wedding Cards, even today after over a century of their migration outside Kutch. Further, the newly-wed couple has to come at least once, even though they may living outside India to bow to their Kuldevi, temples of whom are located in the Nineteen Villages in Kutch, which were originally founded by their ancestors. Further, there is a custom in Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas also to offer special prayers and pooja called "Kar" to their Kuldevis, whenever a boy is born in the family. For which, they come with the boy to these Villages to offer their prayers and "Kar" and "Naivadh" to their Kuldevis. All the members of the community, whether living in Kutch, in others states of India or outside India religiously follow this customs, even today. KGK or kgk samaj is more often used acronym for this community in present days, rather than Mistri. Some information as pioneers of social reforms taken by KGK community The Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Kgk Samaj, have been pioneers in many social reforms. For example, since historic times there is no compulsory or forced Dowry system in the community. Also widow re-marriages were in general allowed by community elders, i.e. the "Naat" and the "Panch", on case to case basis since more than two centuries, much before Widow Remarriage Act was brought in British India in 1856. Even the young widows having infant or young daughter or son, were also allowed to re-marry, in case the second husband guaranteed to take care of child born from first marraige. There was a word called "agandiyaat" used for the young boy, which came to his step-fathers' house holding finger of her mother. The word "angadi" in gujarati l

KGK SAMAJ GALPADAR
ALPESH CHAWDA
 
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